Recent studies highlight the potential impact of Climate Change (CC) and geo-hazards (such as landslides and earthquakes) on historic areas hosting Cultural Heritage (CH) sites and monuments, which in turn yield significant adverse impacts on economies, politics and societies. The deterioration of CH sites is one of the biggest challenges in conservation; aspects such as building technologies/materials, preventive measures and restoration strategies, resilience and adaptation methodologies must be considered. Up today there is no specific process towards understanding and quantifying CC effects on historic areas; combined with the limited strategies on CC-related issues, it becomes difficult to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of various climatic and other parameters on the CH sites. These issues form an integral part of the necessary support that should be provided to governmental bodies and cultural authorities. to properly adapt their policies, in the short and long term, towards deploying sustainable mitigation plans and providing efficient reconstruction of the CH parts that have been damaged. Finally, the absence of communities’ participatory approaches to the overall planning of the historic areas is a main challenge to tackle.
The YADES’ network aims to use proper modelling tools and methods, innovative technologies(terrestrial and satellite imaging for wide-area inspection, advanced machine learning techniques, etc.) to deliver an integrated platform for resilience assessment of CH areas, addressing multi-hazard riskunderstanding, better preparedness, faster, adapted and efficient response, and sustainable reconstruction of historic areas. YADES will take into account the local ecosystems in the areas ofinterest, mapping out their interactions and follow a truly sustainable reconstruction approach attechnical, social, institutional, environmental and economic levels. To this end, it will incorporate activecommunities participation, support new business models based on the concept of a “load-balancing”economy, (using an algorithm that acts like a “reverse proxy”, distributing client traffic across differentcompanies within the same sector) and offer financial risk-transfer tools(parametric insurance, Catastrophe-CAT-bonds) that can ensure the immediate funds’ availability to fuel timely build-back-better efforts.
Impacts & Results
The objectives set are:
STO-1: Reliable quantification of climatic, hydrological and atmospheric stressors: YADES will employ State-of-the-Art numerical modelling tools for selected climate scenarios in the targeted historic areas (Region of Sterea Ellada focusing on the archaeological area of Delphi, the area of Amfikleia and Amfissa in Greece, the city of Termoli in Italy, and the city of Trebinje in Bosnia), covering processes and interactions from short to the long-term (10-60 years).
STO-2: Multi-Hazard modelling will cover single, cotemporaneous (e.g., extreme temperature, humidity, wind, air pollutants) and cascading (mudflow/landslide after rain, etc.) hazards. Inundation maps will be provided for specific catchments by using hydrological modelling for various precipitation capacities, while seismic hazard will be quantified in terms of seismic intensity levels (peak ground acceleration, spectral estimates, and surface faulting deformations) and their spatial/temporal distribution for the historic areas, by using stochastic modelling approaches (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis).
STO-3: Improved prediction of Structural and Geotechnical (SG) safety risk of the surveyed structures through the use of simulators that exploit monitoring data from various sensors. Along with the expert knowledge of partners specializing on SG engineering and on materials’ deterioration, the YADES’ consortium will assess the current condition of structural, non-structural and content components of characteristic archetype buildings in the historic area.
STO-4: Environmental and material monitoring including state identification and damage diagnosis: novel Computer Vision (CV) and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms will be developed to exploit sensors, such as visible/hyper-/multi-spectral cameras, thermal/infrared/Ultra-Violet sensors, mounted on vehicles and drones to get a precise inspection of the selected CH sites.
- 3D capturing of wider area, ground based imaging and 3D reconstruction;
- Damage assessment and structure deformation maps (internal/ external walls, facades/roofs and envelopes), surface material classification and degradation analysis and contour diagrams for the temperature profile;
- Novel methodologies for deformation maps, ML-based algorithms for the assessment of land cover changes in the broader area, and overall estimation of the environmental condition of the CH site (big picture: flooding, sea-level rise, levees’ overflows, soil moisture, etc.)
- Spatial-temporal 4D (3D plus time) maps assessing the temporal damages of sites and the impact of the climate on its conditions;
- Integrated conventional sensors (e.g., environmental and structural) and deployment of low-cost microclimate-stations (wind-speed, air humidity, soil moisture and temperature).
STO-5: Design of a Cultural Heritage Resilience Assessment Platform (CHRAP) and a DecisionSupport-System (DSS), enabling communities’ participation.
STO-6: Push innovation through the development of an initial research and training network that will focus its activities on the development, effective integration and increased utilisation of existing and the proposed YADES’ innovative technologies and techniques. We also aim to provide researchers and professionals with the opportunity to go beyond the current state-of-the-art in the relevant application domain, through a multidisciplinary and international approach based on a wide spectrum of technological tools and methods that can contribute to a more effective CH resilience and conservation policy. YADES aims to build and enhance the researchers’ and professionals’ network of contacts and, hence, to possibly continue and improve their careers at high profile universities and well-established private enterprises, even after the end of their individual project within YADES.
STO-7: Provision of a Handbook to include
a) technical information on sustainable reconstruction of historic areas,
b) proper adaptive response strategies for CC and other hazards scenarios,
c) post-disaster reconstruction examples,
d) practical checklists and references to assist practitioners, field-workers, cities and cultural authorities, etc. in better decision making,
e) recovery requirements for various sectors,
f) information on financial tools to mitigate risk, including a novel set of CH-area-specific insurance-linked securities (e.g., CAT-bonds) designed to cover different degrees of extreme CC and non-CC event severity and g) guidelines and techniques to encourage, facilitate, and develop bespoke reciprocal agreements between same type of businesses for timely service recovery.
STO-8: Build up specific complementary and market-oriented skills to allow the European researchers and professionals to face the new challenge in terms of technology development and future services.